A Pile of Stones

This story really starts centuries ago when people from England were ‘planted’ in Ireland to establish a presence and develop the land.  The English colonized Ireland with settlers in  the 16th- and 17th-centuries in order to occupy, and therefore maintain control of Ireland.  English nobility and friends of the English monarchs (among others) were granted land, often very large parcels of it.  The problem was, these people were not farmers, and they needed people to work small plots of land, pay rent, and harvest crops to sustain the population and to sell.  The land had no real value (and could be a liability) unless it was used to produce.

James Goarley “age 20 years or thereabouts” of Drumskimly, County Fermanagh, was one of those industrious Irish farmers.  On the 28th of December 1778  James signed a lease with Henry, the Earl of Ely, to farm 32 acres for the yearly rent of nine pounds, ten shillings.

The Public Record Office of Northern Ireland’s freeholders’ records indicate that a John Gorely was in Drumscainley in 1788 and Adam Goarley was there in 1796.  We don’t yet know how they are connected to the Gorleys but the name and the location indicate there is a tie.  Spellings of names and townships vary, due to the fact that most people were illiterate and the agents gathering the information often spelled things as they sounded.

The family appeared to stay in the area and farm the land for at least 90 years.  Using Griffith’s Valuation records we can see that James Gorley Sr. and James Gorley Jr. were still working 30 acres in 1862.  They farmed plots 6, 8A, and 8B in the Drumskimly Township.  They may be descendants of ‘our’ John Gorley (born between 1775 and 1780) and Catherine Moore, but that is still to be proven.

Thomas Gorley (1801/06 – 1881/91), son of John Gordly and Catherine Moore, and Ann Mathews (1806-1877) married about 1829.  Up until 1830 the families would have worshiped at the Derrygonnelly Old Parish Church, now a beautiful ruin.  We found the ‘old church’ near Derrygonnelly easily as it stands, mostly intact, beside a main road.  It was within easy walking distance of the Gorley residence.

After the ‘new’ church was built in 1830 they attended the Parish of Inishmacsaint in the Derrygonnelly / Drumskimly area where Thomas and Ann baptized five children.  A stone from the original church at that site indicates that people have been praying there since 1688.  There seems to have been some sort of amalgamation.  The ‘new’ church replaced an old one on that site and the one near Derrygonnelly.

Things changed in the 1840s when a potato blight affected crops — more than half the crop in 1845 and 3/4 of the crops for the next seven years!  Families made some tough decisions and many left the country as hungry refugees.  More than a million people starved to death during that time.

Thomas and Ann Gorley were among those who decided to immigrate to Canada sometime between 1840 and 1847.  We have documentation of their life after immigrating by baptism, marriage, and death records along with census data and other information.  However, we were curious about their life in Ireland.  Where, exactly, did they live?

With the skilled help of a professional genealogist we were able to narrow down the location by baptism records from the Parish of Inishmacsaint.  This is close to the town of Enniskillen, where family historians had placed them.

A trip to Ireland included a day with the genealogist who had already done the groundwork and knew the area.  Armed with the map from 1862, the plot numbers and a current satellite image, we headed out with high hopes of locating the old farm site.

The Griffith’s Valuation document matched land plot numbers with names of the farmers who leased the plots and named Edward Archdall is the leaser.  The Archdale/Archdall family had been in Ireland since the 1600s, passing down the land and assets through the generations.

We would be intruding on private land so we needed to be respectful about driving into lanes and onto property.  We also needed to find the access roads that would lead us to the old farm.  To get some detailed local information we knocked on the door of a residence.  A woman answered and looked at our map.  She enlisted the help of her father and it was determined what direction we should drive.

After cruising the narrow road and finding no clear access point, we tried a lane hoping to find someone who could direct us further.  We drove through a farmyard and heard machinery working in a field.  Our genealogist climbed a fence, picked his way across a field and flagged down the farmer in his tractor.  The farmer was very interested in our old map and was fascinated to see his farm as it was plotted in the 1860s.  He also told us how best to reach the plot we were looking for.

By lucky chance we caught the young fellow who now farms the land just as he was leaving to run an errand.  We explained what we were looking for and why, and he was very helpful.

He told us there was a ‘pile of stones’ and where to find them.  At first we weren’t sure what we would find, but consulting our old map, we identified the fields the Gorleys worked 200 years ago.

It was quite amazing to be able to stand on the land that Gorley ancestors once walked and tended.  But the most exciting part was still to come.

We had found the farm, but was there anything left of the house?  Would we be able to find the ‘pile of stones’?  Map in hand and now knowing exactly were we were in relation to the map, and following the farmer’s instructions, we determined the most likely spot.  Parting the long grass, we found several large stones that were suitable for a house, and similar to other old stone buildings nearby.  We had done it!  We had found the place where the Gorleys lived and worked almost 200 years ago!

A map dated 1825 provided more evidence that we had the right spot.  Just to the left of the number 177 on the map you can see the rectangle of the house where the stones are now.

We moved on and were stopped at a stop sign reading our map and deciding where we needed to turn.  A car behind us prompted us to pull over and the other driver approached our car asking if we needed help.  We told him what we were looking for and he gave us some information about the new Inishmacsaint Church (where the Gorleys worshiped after 1830) location and history.

Everyone who helped us along the way made the day one of the best ones we spent in Ireland.

 

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Remembering Harold Gorley on November 11.

 

Harold Gorley and mother Ethel May Trewin GorleyHarold Gorley was born November 11, 1905 in Killarney, Manitoba to George and Ethel (nee Trewin). He would have been 112 years old on Remembrance Day this year. When he was just four years old the family moved from Manitoba to Saskatchewan and set up a home near Traynor. While they were there, Harold’s only sibling, Arthur was born.

A few years later they moved farther west to Alberta. Harold was about 13 at the time, so his formative years were spent on the homestead and farm in the Rosyth area. He was active in the community, playing ball on a local team.

An opportunity for adventure knocked on Harold’s door when he was about 16 years old. Buffalo 1925-1929Between 1921 and 1925 the Canadian government was rounding up buffalo from the Wainwright Buffalo Park to be relocated to the Wood Buffalo Park in the North West Territories. Harold saddled his horse, felt the earth shake with the thundering buffalo hooves, and with dust thick in the air, participated in rounding up 6700 buffalo and loading them on rail cars for their trip north. Perfect job for a guy like Harold!

About this time a young lady named Thelma Mae Miller caught his eye and they were

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Harold and Thelma Gorl

married in 1929. They spent the first year of their married life living on the farm with Harold’s parents, until they could acquire a farm of their own. They stayed on the farm through the tough years of the 1930s, battling the elements, grasshoppers, and drought. Times were already hard and the years of WWII made things even more difficult.

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Harold became a husband and a dad for the first time in 1929

 

In the early 1940s opportunity again knocked on Harold’s door and the family, now numbering five children, moved west once more, this time to the Bulkley Valley in BC. Harold had a good job at the Smithers Dominion Experimental Farm where they experimented with innovative ways to grow hearty crops and livestock. It was a busy place, and many men were employed as carpenters to build the farm structures, outbuildings, and residences. It was a busy Gorley household too, with three more children born while they were living near Smithers!

Harold Gorley business card

In the late 1940s Harold decided to become a business owner, and set up a taxi business in Telkwa. Unfortunately, his luck was bad and his timing was off. Thelma, his wife of 25 years passed away suddenly at the young age of 44, leaving Harold with five children at home, the youngest only 18 months old.

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Thelma and Harold with four of their childre

 

It must have been devastating and he probably felt like giving up, but Harold’s fortitude and determination to keep the family together were strong. In the short term, the younger children were looked after by other family members.

Harold married Eva Granzow in 1957 and brought the younger children back home again, all under the same roof once more. Again, things were difficult financially with the expanded family (Eva had children of her own) but the kids recall happy times and a solid family life. Perhaps that’s the most important value, and Harold wanted his family together.

The situation improved, and he earned a forestry scaling licence is 1959 and worked in sawmills around Barriere until 1972. The kids were on their own by this time and Harold had time to enjoy his garden and support the local hockey team as a fan in his spare time. He was widowed a second time when Eva passed in 1970, and he married again, to Leita Crow in 1973.

Alan, Doug, Orval, Harold

Four generations of Gorley first-born sons

Life is never predicable, and the surprises kept coming. Harold used the middle name ‘James’ until 1967 when we was 62 years old. It was then, when he applied for his pension and needed his birth certificate that he learned his middle name was actually ‘McDougal’. He also learned he was a year older than he thought!

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Harold Gorley

Harold’s last few years were spent at the Ponderosa Lodge in Kamloops. He enjoyed visits and outings with his sons and daughters, and meeting old friends in the pub. He died peacefully on August 7, 1993 in Kamloops and is buried with his first wife, Thelma, mother of his children, in Telkwa, BC.

Frank Munger 1861-1938

Frank Munger was born September 24, 1861 in St Joseph, Missouri to Richard Andrew Munger and Margaret Allen.  Frank was the oldest of five children born to Richard and Margaret.  He had two  brothers, Cyrus and Louis, and two sisters, Dellaphine and Lena.

Frank’s early childhood was probably influenced by the unrest of the American Civil War.  This link provides information of what a small boy might have been exposed to during his formative years.  Missouri 1860s

Frank Munger

Frank Munger with his trademark moustache

The 1880 MIssouri census shows Frank as an 18-year-old living with his parents and grandparents in Platte, Missouri, but it seems that adventure was calling this young man.

Family folklore has it that when he was about 19 or 20 years old he stole a horse and fled to Canada to escape conscription to the US Army.  We don’t know if this is true or not, but we could speculate that if he did, his decision may have been influenced by the death of his uncle, Cyrus Munger, killed in action at the battle of Shiloh in 1862.  His father, Richard Munger was enlisted, and taken prisoner, at the time of Cyrus’s death and Frank may have been witness to his father’s opinions of the fighting.

Another rumour about Frank is that he rode with the Jesse James gang for a brief time, but no evidence has been found to substantiate the rumour, so it remains a bit of colourful speculation and makes a good story.

We know that he did cross the border into Canada sometime between 1880 and 1890 because when he was 29 years old he married 25-year-old Jenny/Jane Graham on March 12, 1890 at the bride’s parents’ ranch at Cultra Farm, near Kamloops in the South Thompson.

Munger family photoFrank and Jenny raised their family of 6 children (4 girls; Mildred, Dora, Della, Dot, and 2 boys; Roy and Richard) at Duck Range, also near Kamloops.  Three other children died as infants.

In the year 1900, 2 days before his 39th birthday, Frank became a Canadian citizen.

Frank Munger photoThey moved to the Bulkley Valley area in northern BC in 1919.  Their son, Roy Munger, scouted out the area and suggested it would be good place to relocate.  They purchased property on Summit Lake Road, between Houston and Telkwa and built a homestead there.

Frank passed away October 18, 1938 in Kamloops at the age of 77 and is buried with Jenny in the Pleasant Street Cemetery in Kamloops.

Frank and Jennie Munger Headstone

 

Happy 108th Birthday, Thelma Miller Gorley!

Thelma Miller 1910

Thelma Mae Miller was born September 24, 1909 to Frederick William Miller and Henrietta Newton at Indian Head, Saskatchewan.  Thelma was the fourth child of five for Fred and Henrietta.  She had two brothers (Norman and Bill), and two sisters, Luella and Lauretta.

Thelma Miller on left with teacher and friends

Her family was in Saskatchewan until sometime between 1916 and 1921, when census records show them in Alberta.  Thelma’s family settled in the Hardisty / Hughenden / Amisk area of Alberta, not far from where George and Ethel Gorley lived with their two sons, Harold and Arthur.

On January 8, 1929 nineteen-year-old Thelma married Harold McDougal Gorley at the home of Dr. McBride in Hardisty.  The newlyweds spent the first year of married life with Harold’s parents, Ethel and George Gorley in Hughenden.  Harold and his father, George, farmed a piece of land near Rosyth.  It was there that their first child, Orval, was born, delivered by his grandmother because the doctor could not make it in time.

Thelma with Orval and Wilma 1931.

Harold acquired a nearby plot of farmland where they established their own homestead, and had four more children there – Wilma, Delbert, Gwen, and Donella.  Harold continued to work with his father farming their lands.

Thelma was active in community life as a member of the Literary Society and the Farm Women’s Union of Alberta.  The FWUA made a quilt with each member’s name stitched into it, and apparently that quilt is still in the area, stitching intact!

The 1930s were a challenge in many ways and farming was not easy.  They endured hail storms, grasshopper infestations, and drought.  Thelma’s brother, Bill Miller, was working on the Federal Government Experimental Farm near Smithers, BC and suggested they come west.  He arranged for Harold to work on the Experimental Farm for a year to see if they liked it.  Harold was impressed and brought Thelma out for a month to see if the Bulkley Valley suited her.

Harold and Thelma Gorley.

Thelma fell in love with the country so in November 1942 Harold, Thelma, and their five children moved to BC and settled in the Telkwa area.  Three more sons were born in BC – Fred, Mervin, and Melvin, completing the family of five boys and three girls.

Sadly, Thelma died suddenly and much too young on September 19, 1954, only five days before her 45th birthday.  Her youngest child was only eighteen months old.

We don’t know much about Thelma’s personality but photos of her convey a sense of fun and friendliness.  As a young mom, she has a sparkle in her eye that suggests she loves nurturing and raising her children.

Happy birthday, Thelma.  I wish I could have known you.

Their Lives Mattered.

Not everyone is interested in their family history and I understand that.  I’ve heard the question “Why do people want to know anything about their ancestors anyway?”

Well, their lives mattered, that’s why. They lived, they loved, they rejoiced, and they feared. They were real people, and they deserve to be remembered.  They did small and great things.  They raised families and went about day-to-day life.  They nurtured communities and they belonged.

They passed down stories, knowledge, culture, rituals, and traditions.  That’s important to our sense of who we are, even if we don’t acknowledge it.

They connect us to our heritage, to our collective history.  By doing that, they are actually connecting us to the future by situating us in ‘future history’.

A friend’s granddaughter said she would keep her grandfather “in the land of the remembered instead of letting him go to the land of the forgotten.”  That’s reason enough to know about our ancestors and family history.

 

Happy 134th Birthday to William (Papa) Hudson!

William Arthur Hudson1883-1963

This handsome young man is William Arthur Hudson (1883-1963), my husband’s grandfather. This was taken around the turn of the century before he became the father of seven daughters and (finally) one son!

William was born May 23, 1883 in Moncton, New Brunswick to Thomas Hudson and Sarah Jane McDonald.  He was the 3rd generation of Hudsons to be born in Canada and the 3rd child of seven born to Tom and Sarah.

In the early 1900s William and his brother Tom came to BC with plans to travel to the west coast.  They worked odd jobs along the way, and were checking out some work opportunities in the Shuswap area when fate stepped in.

William Arthur Hudson

William met Dora Munger at a dance at Prichard, BC and decided to stick around.   Before long they married and raised a family of eight children – seven girls between 1911 and 1926 before a son was born in 1927.  They lived in Anglemont, Chase, Salmon Arm, and Kamloops.

The Chase House – Will Hudson and his brother Tom

William and Tom were the first white settlers in the Anglemont, BC area.  William and Tom built this house in Chase, which is still standing, and to which William and his wife, Dora returned to in 1960, 50 years after they built it!

William possessed many skills and wore many different hats during his working life.  He built houses, he had a vet certificate, he had a blacksmith shop, he farmed, and he logged.  He was also the Justice of the Peace and the first postmaster at the Anglemont Post Office when it opened in 1914 as a lean-to off the front room of his house.

His adult children talked about him often, testifying to his devotion to his family.  They had many stories that reflected happy childhoods and a loving home life.

Happy 134th Birthday, Papa Hudson!

 

 

 

Happy 91st Birthday, Lorna! 1926-2008

Just when I thought I’d gathered all the documents, and had a pretty comprehensive picture of the life events of Lorna Gorley (nee Hudson) I learned something surprising.

Dora Hudson (nee Munger) and her 7 daughters

Lorna was born the 7th daughter to Will and Dora (nee Munger) Hudson.  They already had Evelyn, Dorothy, Bessie, Mary, Hazel, and Mildred (Toody).  This large group of girls ranged in age from 3 to 15, so Will and Dora were well acquainted with the challenges of raising girls.

Lorna was born May 11, 1926.  Nine days later she was baptised.  I am imagining a busy household with a new baby doesn’t afford the parents much time to pay attention to the details.  Recently I was going through some documents I hadn’t seen before and noticed something interesting.  On May 20, 1926, this nine-day-old baby was baptised as “Grace Lorna Hudson”.  Again, I can imagine that when Will and Dora noticed this they might have said “What?!  That’s not what we named her!”  So, back to the church for another baptism.  Ten days later she was baptised again as “Lorna Grace Hudson.”  Not everyone can claim to be baptised twice with two different names!

Lorna in the 1990s

While that information was new, there were some things that I knew well and were constant in Lorna’s life.  She had style!  She worked in a women’s wear store in Prince George so had access to all the latest trends and brought quite a few pieces home with her.  A girl has to look good!  She even modelled some of the clothes for newspaper ads.

She was unwavering in her love and commitment to her family and when her grandchildren were around, they had her full attention.  If she had lived to see her great-grandchildren, they would have received the same love and undivided attention from her.  I often think how she would enjoy time with Genevieve, Hudson, Lily, Campbell, and the ones yet to come.  She spent as much time as she could at the cabin, and was quite at home preparing meals without all the conveniences … like running water.

Lorna, Graham, Doug 1986

Lorna at the Cabin 1990s

 

 

 

 

 

In the past I have commemorated Lorna in Facebook posts, so now some of those posts will eventually find their way to this blog.

From Russian Poland to Canada in 1903

In my last post I introduced my grandmother, Anna Garbe, who arrived in Canada at the age of 13 with her family.  One week later, on the 21st of April, 1903, my grandfather, Rudolph Bierwagen (age 19) and his father, Ferdinand boarded the Adria at Hamberg, Germany and made their way to Canada.  It was not uncommon for the menfolk to make the trip first, secure housing, then send for the rest of the family.  In fact, family folklore has it that Rudolph was in danger of being drafted into the    PrussiaBierwagen Family about 1906n army, so he and his father decided the time had come. We don’t know if it is true or not, but it makes a good story.   Rudolph is at the far right in the back row in this photo taken around 1906.  His outfit is interesting.  I’m curious about the gloves.

Rudolph and Ferdinand arrived in Halifax on May 5, 1903 and made their way west.  Ferdinand’s wife, Henrietta (nee Schmitke) and four children followed in August of that year, with the last daughter making her way to North America in 1910.

Distance from Janiewice to Kurowek

Map data @2017 GeoBasis-DE/BKG (@2009), Google

What is interesting is that Anna Garbe and Rudolph Bierwagen both arrived in Canada with weeks of each other.  Anna came from the northern part of what is now Poland and our current information tells us that Rudolph’s family lived in Kurowek, which in those days was considered Russian Poland.  It’s unlikely they knew each other because the distance is almost 500 miles from the two communities.

They were married in Canada in 1907, settled in the  Saltcoats area of Saskatchewan and had 14 children!  Ten of those 14 lived and most lived well into their 90s!

Reference:

Google. (n.d.). [Google Maps directions for driving from Kurowek, Poland to Janiewice Poland]. Retrieved April 20, 2017,
from https://www.google.ca/maps/dir/Janiewice,+Poland/Kur%C3%B3wek,+Poland/@52.8460405,15.9266381,7z/data=!3m1!4b1!4m13!4m12!1m5!1m1!1s0x4701e08bebe4c5d9:0xf1628bb4852b2527!2m2!1d16.7693554!2d54.2708313!1m5!1m1!1s0x471a6aa598b10b17:0xa6cd821e35ce1493!2m2!1d19.1451101!2d51.4654226

SS Kaiser Wilhelm II. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved April 20, 2017, from
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SS_Kaiser_Wilhelm_II

From German Poland to Canada in 1903

 

Jannowitz map

Map data @2017 Google

April 14, 1903.  The time of year when buds appear on branches and bulbs emerge from the cool wet soil and open to the sun.  The temperature warms, and the sun and gentle showers whisper a promise of new growth and new beginnings.

ship

 

With the spring sunshine on their shoulders, a family from Jannowitz, Germany (now Janiewice, Poland) stands on the dock at Bremen, waiting to board the ship Kaiser Wilhelm II, sail the Weser River to the North Sea, and embark on their new beginning across the Atlantic Ocean.

Photo and ship information found here

In the late 1800s and early 1900s many families were making the decision to leave their homeland and seek a different life.  I have the impression that there was oppression and loss of freedoms we take for granted.  The population was increasing, there were many unemployed people, and the future didn’t look very promising.  Young men were subject to being drafted into service in the Russian army and could be expected to serve for 20 to 25 years!  Ferdinand’s mother, Emilia (nee Rosin), his step- father, Wilhelm Dietrich, and his five siblings had already immigrated to North America, so one can image that the family was excited to join them there.

(Johann) Ferdinand Garbe Bertha ZilskeMy great-grandparents, Johann Ferdinand Garbe, a commissioned officer recently discharged from the army, his wife Bertha (nee Zilske) and their children Emil, Anna (my grandmother, age 13), Gustave, Ferdinand, Elsa, Willi, and Ewald prepare for a 12-day sail to their new life.  Bertha was, in fact, carrying new life, with another son Julius, born three months after their arrival in Canada.

passenger

After landing in New York on April 22, 1903, they made their way to Churchbridge, Saskatchewan on April 28.  They stayed with Ferdinand’s brother, Gustave in a small two-room house.  Gustave had 6 children of his own, so there were 13 kids and 4 adults living in two rooms!

001Decades later remnants of the sod house remained on the property, with the wallpaper still attached to chunks of the sod walls.  It was well built, with walls three feet thick, laid like interlocking layers of bricks.  It was cozy and warm, and housed a hard-working family.

From there Ferdinand walked to his allotted homestead, 60 miles west of Churchbridge and 5 miles from Melville, where he built a sod hut for his family.  When it was ready the family traveled to the homestead on a wagon drawn by two oxen and a cow.  Then he walked 300 miles to the US and worked as a farmhand to earn an income to feed the family.

Ferdinand was industrious and by 1908 he had built a modern home (for that time), complete with running water!  He was a farmer, rancher, veterinarian, carpenter, bricklayer, decorator, dentist, and general practitioner (Source: The Ties That Bind: A History of Melville, 1984, p. 412, 413) and he invented many gadgets for use on the farm.

Life in Canada was very different from the life they left behind.  Two good resources if you are interested in learning more about immigration from Eastern Europe to Canada are:

Writing Home: Immigrants in Brazil and the United States  This work is a compilation of letters written to families left behind in Poland.  The letters had been confiscated by Russian soldiers and were found decades later in a warehouse during WWII.

Settling the West: Immigration to the Prairies from 1867 to 1914  This document talks about the different ethnic groups that arrived on the Prairies and their settling in.

References:

Google. (n.d.). [Google Maps for Janiewice Poland]. Retrieved April 10, 2017,
from https://goo.gl/maps/FGLpSGYrMst

Wedding Day, April 1, 1876

Joshua Thompson and Sarah Mattinson photo

Joshua & Sarah Thompson

April 1st may seem like an odd day to get married, but for Joshua Thompson and SarahMattinson in 1876, it was the perfect day for an English wedding.

Joshua, the son of Charles Thompson and Mary Atkinson, was a 21 year old bachelor living in Frizington, a small village in the Cumbria (or Cumberland as it was known then) area.  Sarah was just 19 years old when she said “I do”.  She was the daughter of Robert Mattinson and Sarah Mitchinson, and also hailed from the Frizington area.

Thompson Mattinson marriage snip

The next few years were busy ones for this young couple.  Their first child, Charles, was born in 1877, followed by Mary in 1878, Joshua in 1881, and Robert in 1883.  These four children were all born in the Cleator region of England.  Census records for that area in 1881 document their growing family.  They were living with Joshua’s widowed mother, Mary, his brothers, Anthony and Thomas, and his sister-in-law, Sarah Ormandy (nee Thompson).

Many people were making decisions to move to Canada, and Joshua and Sarah were among those imagining a future in a new country.  Sometime in late 1882, it seems that Joshua did some scouting.  There is a record of a young man who fits the description of Joshua on a passenger list 1882 and my Uncle Don recalled “I now remember a story when I was a boy that my grand father Joshua Thompson left England by himself. He went to California, got malaria, and so decided it was not the place to be. He then went to Ontario and the rest of the family came out and met him there.” (Source:  Donald Thompson, Joshua’s grandson.  Email April 5, 2010).

Joshua may have sailed on the Lake Huron, the same ship that Sarah and her four young children boarded in Liverpool on August 28, 1884.  There’s a note next to Sarah’s name that she is traveling to her husband at Curry Hill, which is in Ontario.

Lake Huron Sarah Mattinson

They settled in nearby Lancaster and had four more children.  John Frederick Ruben in 1886, Cuthbert in 1890, William in 1892 and my grandfather, Hedley Redvest Stuart in 1900.  The family appears on the 1891, 1901, and 1911 census records for that area.

Happy 141st Wedding Anniversary, Joshua and Sarah!